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:. National Internal Revenue Code (NIRC)
NIRC Outline

CHAPTER I - ESTATE TAX

SEC. 84 Rates of Estate Tax. - There shall be levied, assessed, collected and paid upon the transfer of the net estate as determined in accordance with Sections 85 and 86 of every decedent, whether resident or nonresident of the Philippines, a tax based on the value of such net estate, as computed in accordance with the following schedule:

If the net estate is:
 

Over
But Not Over
The Tax shall be
Plus
Of the Excess Over
  P 200,000 Exempt    
P 200,000
550,000
0
5%
P 200,000
500,000
2,000,000
P 15,000
8%
500,000
2,000,000
5,000,000
135,000
11%
2,000,000
5,000,000
10,000,000
465,000
15%
5,000,000
10,000,000
And Over
1,215,000
20%
10,000,000
 
 

SEC. 85. Gross Estate. - the value of the gross estate of the decedent shall be determined by including the value at the time of his death of all property, real or personal, tangible or intangible, wherever situated: Provided, however, that in the case of a nonresident decedent who at the time of his death was not a citizen of the Philippines, only that part of the entire gross estate which is situated in the Philippines shall be included in his taxable estate.
 

(A) Decedent's Interest. - To the extent of the interest therein of the decedent at the time of his death;
 

(B) Transfer in Contemplation of Death. - To the extent of any interest therein of which the decedent has at any time made a transfer, by trust or otherwise, in contemplation of or intended to take effect in possession or enjoyment at or after death, or of which he has at any time made a transfer, by trust or otherwise, under which he has retained for his life or for any period which does not in fact end before his death (1) the possession or enjoyment of, or the right to the income from the property, or (2) the right, either alone or in conjunction with any person, to designate the person who shall possess or enjoy the property or the income therefrom; except in case of a bonafide sale for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth.
 

(C) Revocable Transfer. -

    (1) To the extent of any interest therein, of which the decedent has at any time made a transfer (except in case of a bona fide sale for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth) by trust or otherwise, where the enjoyment thereof was subject at the date of his death to any change through the exercise of a power (in whatever capacity exerciseable) by the decedent alone or by the decedent in conjunction with any other person (without regard to when or from what source the decedent acquired such power), t o alter, amend, revoke, or terminate, or where any such power is relinquished in contemplation of the decedent's death.

    (2) For the purpose of this Subsection, the power to alter, amend or revoke shall be considered to exist on the date of the decedent's death even though the exercise of the power is subject to a precedent giving of notice or even though the alteration, amendment or revocation takes effect only on the expiration of a stated period after the exercise of the power, whether or not on or before the date of the decedent's death notice has been given or the power has been exercised. In such cases, proper adjustment shall be made representing the interests which would have been excluded from the power if the decedent had lived, and for such purpose if the notice has not been given or the power has not been exercised on or before the date of his
    death, such notice shall be considered to have been given, or the power exercised, on the date of his death.

(D) Property Passing Under General Power of Appointment. - To the extent of any property passing under a general power of appointment exercised by the decedent: (1) by will, or (2) by deed executed in contemplation of, or intended to take effect in possession or enjoyment at, or after his death, or (3) by deed under which he has retained for his life or any period not ascertainable without reference to his death or for any period which does not in fact end before his death (a) the possession or enjoyment of, or the right to the income from, the property, or (b) the right, either alone or in conjunction with any person, to designate the persons who shall possess or enjoy the property or the income therefrom; except in case of a bona fide sale for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth.
 

(E) Proceeds of Life Insurance. - To the extent of the amount receivable by the estate of the deceased, his executor, or administrator, as insurance under policies taken out by the decedent upon his own life, irrespective of whether or not the insured retained the power of revocation, or to the extent of the amount receivable by any beneficiary designated in the policy of insurance, except when it is expressly stipulated that the designation of the beneficiary is irrevocable.
 

(F) Prior Interests. - Except as otherwise specifically provided therein, Subsections (B), (C) and (E) of this Section shall apply to the transfers, trusts, estates, interests, rights, powers and relinquishment of powers, as severally enumerated and described therein, whether made, created, arising, existing, exercised or relinquished before or after the effectivity of this Code.
 

(G) Transfers of Insufficient Consideration. - If any one of the transfers, trusts, interests, rights or powers enumerated and described in Subsections (B), (C) and (D) of this Section is made, created, exercised or relinquished for a consideration in money or money's worth, but is not a bona fide sale for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth, there shall be included in the gross estate only the excess of the fair market value, at the time of death, of the property otherwise to be included on account of such transaction, over the value of the consideration received therefor by the decedent.
 

(H) Capital of the Surviving Spouse. - The capital of the surviving spouse of a decedent shall not, for the purpose of this Chapter, be deemed a part of his or her gross estate.

 

SEC. 86. Computation of Net Estate. - For the purpose of the tax imposed in this Chapter, the value of the net estate shall be determined:
 

(A) Deductions Allowed to the Estate of Citizen or a Resident. - In the case of a citizen or resident of the Philippines, by deducting from the value of the gross estate -

    (1) Expenses, Losses, Indebtedness, and taxes. - Such amounts -
      (a) For actual funeral expenses or in an amount equal to five percent (5%) of the gross estate, whichever is lower, but in no case to exceed Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000);

      (b) For judicial expenses of the testamentary or intestate proceedings;

      (c) For claims against the estate: Provided, That at the time the indebtedness was incurred the debt instrument was duly notarized and, if the loan was contracted within three (3) years before the death of the decedent, the administrator or executor shall submit a statement showing the disposition of the proceeds of the loan;

      (d) For claims of the deceased against insolvent persons where the value of decedent's interest therein is included in the value of the gross estate; and

      (e) For unpaid mortgages upon, or any indebtedness in respect to, property where the value of decedent's interest therein, undiminished by such mortgage or indebtedness, is included in the value of the gross estate, but not including any income tax upon income received after the death of the decedent, or property taxes not accrued before his death, or any estate tax. The deduction herein allowed in the case of claims against the estate, unpaid mortgages or any indebtedness shall, when founded upon a promise or agreement, be limited to the extent that they were contracted bona fide and for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth. There shall also be deducted losses incurred during the settlement of the estate arising from fires, storms, shipwreck, or other casualties, or from robbery, theft or embezzlement, when such losses are not compensated for by insurance or otherwise, and if at the time of the filing of the return such losses have not been claimed as a deduction for the income tax purposes in an income tax return, and provided that such losses were incurred not later than the last day for the payment of the estate tax as prescribed in Subsection (A) of Section 91.

    (2) Property Previously Taxed. - An amount equal to the value specified below of any property forming a part of the gross estate situated in the Philippines of any person who died within five (5) years prior to the death of the decedent, or transferred to the decedent by gift within five (5) years prior to his death, where such property can be identified as having been received by the decedent from the donor by gift, or from such prior decedent by gift, bequest, devise or inheritance, or which can be identified as having been acquired in exchange for property so received:

    One hundred percent (100%) of the value, if the prior decedent died within one (1) year prior to the death of the decedent, or if the property was transferred to him by gift within the same period prior to his death;

    Eighty percent (80%) of the value, if the prior decedent died more than one (1) year but not more than two (2) years prior to the death of the decedent, or if the property was transferred to him by gift within the same period prior to his death;

    Sixty percent (60%) of the value, if the prior decedent died more than two (2) years but not more than three (3) years prior to the death of the decedent, or if the property was transferred to him by gift within the same period prior to his death;

    Forty percent (40%) of the value, if the prior decedent died more than three (3) years but not more than four (4) years prior to the death of the decedent, or if the property was transferred to him by gift within the same period prior to his death;

    Twenty percent (20%) of the value, if the prior decedent died more than four (4) years but not more than five (5) years prior to the death of the decedent, or if the property was transferred to him by gift within the same period prior to his death;

    These deductions shall be allowed only where a donor's tax or estate tax imposed under this Title was finally determined and paid by or on behalf of such donor, or the estate of such prior decedent, as the case may be, and only in the amount finally determined as the value of such property in determining the value of the gift, or the gross estate of such prior decedent, and only to the extent that the value of such property is included in the decedent's gross estate, and only if in determining the value of the estate of the prior decedent, no deduction was allowable under paragraph (2) in respect of the property or properties given in exchange therefor. Where a deduction was allowed of any mortgage or other lien in determining the donor's tax, or the estate tax of the prior decedent, which was paid in whole or in part prior to the decedent's death, then the deduction allowable under said Subsection shall be reduced by the amount so paid. Such deduction allowable shall be reduced by an amount which bears the same ratio to the amounts allowed as deductions under paragraphs (1) and (3) of this Subsection as the amount otherwise deductible under said paragraph (2) bears to the value of the decedent's estate. Where the property referred to consists of two or more items, the aggregate value of such items shall be used for the purpose of computing the deduction.

    (3) Transfers for Public Use. - The amount of all the bequests, legacies, devises or transfers to or for the use of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines, or any political subdivision thereof, for exclusively public purposes.

    (4) The Family Home. - An amount equivalent to the current fair market value of the decedent's family home: Provided, however, That if the said current fair market value exceeds One million pesos (P1,000,000), the excess shall be subject to estate tax. As a sine qua non condition for the exemption or deduction, said family home must have been the decedent's family home as certified by the barangay captain of the locality.

    (5) Standard Deduction. - An amount equivalent to One million pesos (P1,000,000).

    (6) Medical Expenses. - Medical Expenses incurred by the decedent within one (1) year prior to his death which shall be duly substantiated with receipts: Provided, That in no case shall the deductible medical expenses exceed Five Hundred Thousand Pesos (P500,000).

    (7) Amount Received by Heirs Under Republic Act No. 4917. - Any amount received by the heirs from the decedent - employee as a consequence of the death of the decedent-employee in accordance with Republic Act No. 4917: Provided, That such amount is included in the gross estate of the decedent.

(B) Deductions Allowed to Nonresident Estates. - In the case of a nonresident not a citizen of the Philippines, by deducting from the value of that part of his gross estate which at the time of his death is situated in the Philippines:
    (1) Expenses, Losses, Indebtedness and Taxes. - That proportion of the deductions specified in paragraph (1) of Subsection (A) of this Section which the value of such part bears to the value of his entire gross estate wherever situated;

    (2) Property Previously Taxed. - An amount equal to the value specified below of any property forming part of the gross estate situated in the Philippines of any person who died within five (5) years prior to the death of the decedent, or transferred to the decedent by gift within five (5) years prior to his death, where such property can be identified as having been received by the decedent from the donor by gift, or from such prior decedent by gift, bequest, devise or inheritance, or which can be identified as having been acquired in exchange for property so received:

    One hundred percent (100%) of the value if the prior decedent died within one (1) year prior to the death of the decedent, or if the property was transferred to him by gift, within the same period prior to his death;

    Eighty percent (80%) of the value, if the prior decedent died more than one (1) year but not more than two (2) years prior to the death of the decedent, or if the property was transferred to him by gift within the same period prior to his death;

    Sixty percent (60%) of the value, if the prior decedent died more than two (2) years but not more than three (3) years prior to the death of the decedent, or if the property was transferred to him by gift within the same period prior to his death;

    Forty percent (40%) of the value, if the prior decedent died more than three (3) years but not more than four (4) years prior to the death of the decedent, or if the property was transferred to him by gift within the same period prior to his death; and

    Twenty percent (20%) of the value, if the prior decedent died more than four (4) years but not more than five (5) years prior to the death of the decedent, or if the property was transferred to him by gift within the same period prior to his death.

    These deductions shall be allowed only where a donor's tax, or estate tax imposed under this Title is finally determined and paid by or on behalf of such donor, or the estate of such prior decedent, as the case may be, and only in the amount finally determined as the value of such property in determining the value of the gift, or the gross estate of such prior decedent, and only to the extent that the value of such property is included in that part of the decedent's gross estate which at the time of his death is situated in the Philippines; and only if, in determining the value of the net estate of the prior decedent, no deduction is allowable under paragraph (2) of Subsection (B) of this Section, in respect of the property or properties given in exchange therefore. Where a deduction was allowed of any mortgage or other lien in determining the donor's tax, or the estate tax of the prior decedent, which was paid in whole or in part prior to the decedent's death, then the deduction allowable under said paragraph shall be reduced by the amount so paid. Such deduction allowable shall be reduced by an amount which bears the same ratio to the amounts allowed as deductions under paragraphs (1) and (3) of this Subsection as the amount otherwise deductible under paragraph (2) bears to the value of that part of the decedent's gross estate which at the time of his death is situated in the Philippines. Where the property referred to consists of two (2) or more items, the aggregate value of such items shall be used for the purpose of computing the deduction.

    (3) Transfers for Public Use. - The amount of all bequests, legacies, devises or transfers to or for the use of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines or any political subdivision thereof, for exclusively public purposes.

(C) Share in the Conjugal Property. - the net share of the surviving spouse in the conjugal partnership property as diminished by the obligations properly chargeable to such property shall, for the purpose of this Section, be deducted from the net estate of the decedent.
 

(D) Miscellaneous Provisions. - No deduction shall be allowed in the case of a nonresident not a citizen of the Philippines, unless the executor, administrator, or anyone of the heirs, as the case may be, includes in the return required to be filed under Section 90 the value at the time of his death of that part of the gross estate of the nonresident not situated in the Philippines.
 

(E) Tax Credit for Estate Taxes paid to a Foreign Country. -

    (1) In General. - The tax imposed by this Title shall be credited with the amounts of any estate tax imposed by the authority of a foreign country.

    (2) Limitations on Credit. - The amount of the credit taken under this Section shall be subject to each of the following limitations:
     

      (a) The amount of the credit in respect to the tax paid to any country shall not exceed the same proportion of the tax against which such credit is taken, which the decedent's net estate situated within such country taxable under this Title bears to his entir net estate; and

      (b) The total amount of the credit shall not exceed the same proportion of the tax against which such credit is taken, which the decedent's net estate situated outside the Philippines taxable under this Title bears to his entire net estate.

 

SEC. 87 Exemption of Certain Acquisitions and Transmissions. - The following shall not be taxed:

    (A) The merger of usufruct in the owner of the naked title;

    (B) The transmission or delivery of the inheritance or legacy by the fiduciary heir or legatee to the fideicommissary;

    (C) The transmission from the first heir, legatee or donee in favor of another beneficiary, in accordance with the desire of the predecessor; and

    (D) All bequests, devises, legacies or transfers to social welfare, cultural and charitable institutions, no part of the net income of which insures to the benefit of any individual: Provided, however, That not more than thirty percent (30%) of the said bequests, devises, legacies or transfers shall be used by such institutions for administration purposes.

 

SEC. 88. Determination of the Value of the Estate. -

     (A) Usufruct. - To determine the value of the right of usufruct, use or habitation, as well as that of annuity, there shall be taken into account the probable life of the beneficiary in accordance with the latest Basic Standard Mortality Table, to be approved by the Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the Insurance Commissioner.

    (B) Properties. - The estate shall be appraised at its fair market value as of the time of death. However, the appraised value of real property as of the time of death shall be, whichever is higher of -
     

      (1) The fair market value as determined by the Commissioner, or

      (2) The fair market value as shown in the schedule of values fixed by the Provincial and City Assessors.

 

SEC. 89. Notice of Death to be Filed. - In all cases of transfers subject to tax, or where, though exempt from tax, the gross value of the estate exceeds Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000), the executor, administrator or any of the legal heirs, as the case may be, within two (2) months after the decedent's death, or within a like period after qualifying as such executor or administrator, shall give a written notice thereof to the Commissioner.
 
 

SEC. 90. Estate Tax Returns. -
 

(A) Requirements. - In all cases of transfers subject to the tax imposed herein, or where, though exempt from tax, the gross value of the estate exceeds Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000), or regardless of the gross value of the estate, where the said estate consists of registered or registrable property such as real property, motor vehicle, shares of stock or other similar property for which a clearance from the Bureau of Internal Revenue is required as a condition precedent for the transfer of ownership thereof in the name of the transferee, the executor, or the administrator, or any of the legal heirs, as the case may be, shall file a return under oath in duplicate, setting forth:

    (1) The value of the gross estate of the decedent at the time of his death, or in case of a nonresident, not a citizen of the Philippines, of that part of his gross estate situated in the Philippines;

    (2) The deductions allowed from gross estate in determining the estate as defined in Section 86; and

    (3) Such part of such information as may at the time be ascertainable and such supplemental data as may be necessary to establish the correct taxes.

    Provided, however, That estate tax returns showing a gross value exceeding Two million pesos (P2,000,000) shall be supported with a statement duly certified to by a Certified Public Accountant containing the following:
     

      (a) Itemized assets of the decedent with their corresponding gross value at the time of his death, or in the case of a nonresident, not a citizen of the Philippines, of that part of his gross estate situated in the Philippines;

      (b) Itemized deductions from gross estate allowed in Section 86; and

      (c) The amount of tax due whether paid or still due and outstanding.

(B) Time for filing. - For the purpose of determining the estate tax provided for in Section 84 of this Code, the estate tax return required under the preceding Subsection (A) shall be filed within six (6) months from the decedent's death.

A certified copy of the schedule of partition and the order of the court approving the same shall be furnished the Commissioner within thirty (30) after the promulgation of such order.
 

(C) Extension of Time. - The Commissioner shall have authority to grant, in meritorious cases, a reasonable extension not exceeding thirty (30) days for filing the return.
 

(D) Place of Filing. - Except in cases where the Commissioner otherwise permits, the return required under Subsection (A) shall be filed with an authorized agent bank, or Revenue District Officer, Collection Officer, or duly authorized Treasurer of the city or municipality in which the decedent was domiciled at the time of his death or if there be no legal residence in the Philippines, with the Office of the Commissioner.
 

SEC. 91. Payment of Tax. -
 

(A) Time of Payment. - The estate tax imposed by Section 84 shall be paid at the time the return is filed by the executor, administrator or the heirs.
 

(B) Extension of Time. - When the Commissioner finds that the payment on the due date of the estate tax or of any part thereof would impose undue hardship upon the estate or any of the heirs, he may extend the time for payment of such tax or any part thereof not to exceed five (5) years, in case the estate is settled through the courts, or two (2) years in case the estate is settled extrajudicially. In such case, the amount in respect of which the extension is granted shall be paid on or before the date of the expiration of the period of the extension, and the running of the Statute of Limitations for assessment as provided in Section 203 of this Code shall be suspended for the period of any such extension.

Where the taxes are assessed by reason of negligence, intentional disregard of rules and regulations, or fraud on the part of the taxpayer, no extension will be granted by the Commissioner.

If an extension is granted, the Commissioner may require the executor, or administrator, or beneficiary, as the case may be, to furnish a bond in such amount, not exceeding double the amount of the tax and with such sureties as the Commissioner deems necessary, conditioned upon the payment of the said tax in accordance with the terms of the extension.
 

(C) Liability for Payment - The estate tax imposed by Section 84 shall be paid by the executor or administrator before delivery to any beneficiary of his distributive share of the estate. Such beneficiary shall to the extent of his distributive share of the estate, be subsidiarily liable for the payment of such portion of the estate tax as his distributive share bears to the value of the total net estate.

For the purpose of this Chapter, the term 'executor' or 'administrator' means the executor or administrator of the decedent, or if there is no executor or administrator appointed, qualified, and acting within the Philippines, then any person in actual or constructive possession of any property of the decedent.

 

SEC. 92. Discharge of Executor or Administrator from Personal Liability. - If the executor or administrator makes a written application to the Commissioner for determination of the amount of the estate tax and discharge from personal liability therefore, the Commissioner (as soon as possible, and in any event within one (1) year after the making of such application, or if the application is made before the return is filed, then within one (1) year after the return is filed, but not after the expiration of the period prescribed for the assessment of the tax in Section 203 shall not notify the executor or administrator of the amount of the tax. The executor or administrator, upon payment of the amount of which he is notified, shall be discharged from personal liability for any deficiency in the tax thereafter found to be due and shall be entitled to a receipt or writing showing such discharge.

 

SEC. 93. Definition of Deficiency. - As used in this Chapter, the term 'deficiency' means:

(a) The amount by which the tax imposed by this Chapter exceeds the amount shown as the tax by the executor, administrator or any of the heirs upon his return; but the amounts so shown on the return shall first be increased by the amounts previously assessed (or collected without assessment) as a deficiency and decreased by the amount previously abated, refunded or otherwise repaid in respect of such tax; or

(b) If no amount is shown as the tax by the executor, administrator or any of the heirs upon his return, or if no return is made by the executor, administrator, or any heir, then the amount by which the tax exceeds the amounts previously assessed (or collected without assessment) as a deficiency; but such amounts previously assessed or collected without assessment shall first be decreased by the amounts previously abated, refunded or otherwise repaid in respect of such tax.

 

SEC. 94. Payment before Delivery by Executor or Administrator. - No judge shall authorize the executor or judicial administrator to deliver a distributive share to any party interested in the estate unless a certification from the Commissioner that the estate tax has been paid is shown.

 

SEC. 95. Duties of Certain Officers and Debtors. - Registers of Deeds shall not register in the Registry of Property any document transferring real property or real rights therein or any chattel mortgage, by way of gifts inter vivos or mortis causa, legacy or inheritance, unless a certification from the Commissioner that the tax fixed in this Title and actually due thereon had been paid is show, and they shall immediately notify the Commissioner, Regional Director, Revenue District Officer, or Revenue Collection Officer or Treasurer of the city or municipality where their offices are located, of the non payment of the tax discovered by them. Any lawyer, notary public, or any government officer who, by reason of his official duties, intervenes in the preparation or acknowledgment of documents regarding partition or disposal of donation intervivos or mortis causa, legacy or inheritance, shall have the duty of furnishing the Commissioner, Regional Director, Revenue District Officer or Revenue Collection Officer of the place where he may have his principal office, with copies of such documents and any information whatsoever which may facilitate the collection of the aforementioned tax. Neither shall a debtor of the deceased pay his debts to the heirs, legatee, executor or administrator of his creditor, unless the certification of the Commissioner that the tax fixed in this Chapter had been paid is shown; but he may pay the executor or judicial administrator without said certification if the credit is included in the inventory of the estate of the deceased.

 

SEC. 96. Restitution of Tax Upon Satisfaction of Outstanding Obligations. - If after the payment of the estate tax, new obligations of the decedent shall appear, and the persons interested shall have satisfied them by order of the court, they shall have a right to the restitution of the proportional part of the tax paid.

 

SEC. 97. Payment of Tax Antecedent to the Transfer of Shares, Bonds or Rights. - There shall not be transferred to any new owner in the books of any corporation, sociedad anonima, partnership, business, or industry organized or established in the Philippines any share, obligation, bond or right by way of gift inter vivos or mortis causa, legacy or inheritance, unless a certification from the Commissioner that the taxes fixed in this Title and due thereon have been paid is shown.

If a bank has knowledge of the death of a person, who maintained a bank deposit account alone, or jointly with another, it shall not allow any withdrawal from the said deposit account, unless the Commissioner has certified that the taxes imposed thereon by this Title have been paid: Provided, however, That the administrator of the estate or any one (1) of the heirs of the decedent may, upon authorization by the Commissioner, withdraw an amount not exceeding Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000) without the said certification. For this purpose, all withdrawal slips shall contain a statement to the effect that all of the joint depositors are still living at the time of withdrawal by any one of the joint depositors and such statement shall be under oath by the said depositors.


NIRC Outline
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