CHAPTER XIII - WITHHOLDING ON WAGES
SEC. 78. Definitions. - As used in this Chapter:
(A) Wages. - The term 'wages' means all remuneration (other than fees paid to a public official) for services performed by an employee for his employer, including the cash value of all remuneration paid in any medium other than cash, except that such term shall not include remuneration paid:
(1) For agricultural labor paid entirely in products of the farm where the labor is performed, or If the remuneration paid by an employer to an employee for services performed during one-half (1/2) or more of any payroll period of not more than thirty-one (31) consecutive days constitutes wages, all the remuneration paid by such employer to such employee for such period shall be deemed to be wages; but if the remuneration paid by an employer to an employee for services performed during more than one -half (1/2) of any such payroll period does not constitute wages, then none of the remuneration paid by such employer to such employee for such period shall be deemed to be wages.
(2) For domestic service in a private home, or
(3) For casual labor not in the course of the employer's trade or business, or
(4) For services by a citizen or resident of the Philippines for a foreign government or an international organization.
(B) Payroll Period. - The term 'payroll period' means a period for which payment of wages is ordinarily made to the employee by his employer, and the term 'miscellaneous payroll period' means a payroll period other than, a daily, weekly, biweekly, semi-monthly, monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, or annual period.
(C) Employee. - The term 'employee' refers to any individual who is the recipient of wages and includes an officer, employee or elected official of the Government of the Philippines or any political subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof. The term 'employee' also includes an officer of a corporation.
(D) Employer. - The term 'employer' means the person for whom an individual performs or performed any service, of whatever nature, as the employee of such person, except that:
(1) If the person for whom the individual performs or performed any service does not have control of the payment of the wages for such services, the term 'employer' (except for the purpose of Subsection(A) means the person having control of the payment of such wages; and
SEC. 79. Income Tax Collected at Source.-
(2) In the case of a person paying wages on behalf of a nonresident alien individual, foreign partnership or foreign corporation not engaged in trade or business within the Philippines, the term 'employer' (except for the purpose of Subsection(A) means such person.
(A) Requirement of Withholding. - Every employer making payment of wages shall deduct and withhold upon such wages a tax determined in accordance with the rules and regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the Commissioner: Provided, however, That no withholding of a tax shall be required where the total compensation income of an individual does not exceed the statutory minimum wage, or five thousand pesos (P5,000.00) per month, whichever is higher.
(B) Tax Paid by Recipient. - If the employer, in violation of the provisions of this Chapter, fails to deduct and withhold the tax as required under this Chapter, and thereafter the tax against which such tax may be credited is paid, the tax so required to be deducted and withheld shall not be collected from the employer; but this Subsection shall in no case relieve the employer from liability for any penalty or addition to the tax otherwise applicable in respect of such failure to deduct and withhold.
(C) Refunds or Credits. -
(1) Employer. - When there has been an overpayment of tax under this Section, refund or credit shall be made to the employer only to the extent that the amount of such overpayment was not deducted and withheld hereunder by the employer.
Any excess of the taxes withheld over the tax due from the taxpayer shall be returned or credited within three (3) months from the fifteenth (15th) day of April. Refunds or credits made after such time shall earn interest at the rate of six percent (6%) per annum, starting after the lapse of the three-month period to the date the refund of credit is made.
(2) Employees. -The amount deducted and withheld under this Chapter during any calendar year shall be allowed as a credit to the recipient of such income against the tax imposed under Section 24(A) of this Title. Refunds and credits in cases of excessive withholding shall be granted under rules and regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the Commissioner.
Refunds shall be made upon warrants drawn by the Commissioner or by his duly authorized representative without the necessity of counter-signature by the Chairman, Commission on Audit or the latter's duly authorized representative as an exception to the requirement prescribed by Section 49, Chapter 8, Subtitle B, Title 1 of Book V of Executive Order No. 292, otherwise known as the Administrative Code of 1987.
(D) Personal Exemptions. -
(1) In General. - Unless otherwise provided by this Chapter, the personal and additional exemptions applicable under this Chapter shall be determined in accordance with the main provisions of this Title.
(E) Withholding on Basis of Average Wages. - The Commissioner may, under rules and regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Finance, authorize employers to:
(2) Exemption Certificate. -
(a) When to File. - On or before the date of commencement of employment with an employer, the employee shall furnish the employer with a signed withholding exemption certificate relating to the personal and additional exemptions to which he is entitled.
(b) Change of Status. - In case of change of status of an employee as a result of which he would be entitled to a lesser or greater amount of exemption, the employee shall, within ten (10) days from such change, file with the employer a new withholding exemption certificate reflecting the change.
(c) Use of Certificates. - The certificates filed hereunder shall be used by the employer in the determination of the amount of taxes to be withheld.
(d) Failure to Furnish Certificate. - Where an employee, in violation of this Chapter, either fails or refuses to file a withholding exemption certificate, the employer shall withhold the taxes prescribed under the schedule for zero exemption of the withholding tax table determined pursuant to Subsection (A) hereof.
(1) estimate the wages which will be paid to an employee in any quarter of the calendar year;
(2) determine the amount to be deducted and withheld upon each payment of wages to such employee during such quarter as if the appropriate average of the wages so estimated constituted the actual wages paid; and
(3) deduct and withhold upon any payment of wages to such employee during ;such quarter such amount as may be required to be deducted and withheld during such quarter without regard to this Subsection.
(F) Husband and Wife. - When a husband and wife each are recipients of wages, whether from the same or from different employers, taxes to be withheld shall be determined on the following bases:
(1) The husband shall be deemed the head of the family and proper claimant of the additional exemption in respect to any dependent children, unless he explicitly waives his right in favor of his wife in the withholding exemption certificate.
(2) Taxes shall be withheld from the wages of the wife in accordance with the schedule for zero exemption of the withholding tax table prescribed in Subsection (D)(2)(d) hereof. (G) Nonresident Aliens. - Wages paid to nonresident alien individuals engaged in trade or business in the Philippines shall be subject to the provisions of this Chapter.
(H) Year-end Adjustment. - On or before the end of the calendar year but prior to the payment of the compensation for the last payroll period, the employer shall determine the tax due from each employee on taxable compensation income for the entire taxable year in accordance with Section 24(A). The difference between the tax due from the employee for the entire year and the sum of taxes withheld from January to November shall either be withheld from his salary in December of the current calendar year or refunded to the employee not later than January 25 of the succeeding year.
SEC. 80. Liability for Tax. -
(A) Employer. - The employer shall be liable for the withholding and remittance of the correct amount of tax required to be deducted and withheld under this Chapter. If the employer fails to withhold and remit the correct amount of tax as required to be withheld under the provision of this Chapter, such tax shall be collected from the employer together with the penalties or additions to the tax otherwise applicable in respect to such failure to withhold and remit.
(B) Employee. - Where an employee fails or refuses to file the withholding exemption certificate or willfully supplies false or inaccurate information thereunder, the tax otherwise required to be withheld by the employer shall be collected from him including penalties or additions to the tax from the due date of remittance until the date of payment. On the other hand, excess taxes withheld made by the employer due to:
(1) failure or refusal to file the withholding exemption certificate; or
(2) false and inaccurate information shall not be refunded to the employee but shall be forfeited in favor of the Government.
SEC. 81. Filing of Return and Payment of Taxes Withheld. - Except as the Commissioner otherwise permits, taxes deducted and withheld by the employer on wages of employees shall be covered by a return and paid to an authorized agent bank; Collection Agent, or the duly authorized Treasurer of the city or municipality where the employer has his legal residence or principal place of business, or in case the employer is a corporation, where the principal office is located.
The return shall be filed and the payment made within twenty-five (25) days from the close of each calendar quarter: Provided, however, That the Commissioner may, with the approval of the Secretary of Finance, require the employers to pay or deposit the taxes deducted and withheld at more frequent intervals, in cases where such requirement is deemed necessary to protect the interest of the Government.
The taxes deducted and withheld by employers shall be held in a special fund in trust for the Government until the same are paid to the said collecting officers.
SEC. 82. Return and Payment in Case of Government Employees. - If the employer is the Government of the Philippines or any political subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, the return of the amount deducted and withheld upon any wage shall be made by the officer or employee having control of the payment of such wage, or by any officer or employee duly designated for the purpose.
SEC. 83. Statements and Returns. -
(A) Requirements. - Every employer required to deduct and withhold a tax shall furnish to each such employee in respect of his employment during the calendar year, on or before January thirty-first (31st) of the succeeding year, or if his employment is terminated before the close of such calendar year, on the same day of which the last payment of wages is made, a written statement confirming the wages paid by the employer to such employee during the calendar year, and the amount of tax deducted and withheld under this Chapter in respect of such wages. The statement required to be furnished by this Section in respect of any wage shall contain such other information, and shall be furnished at such other time and in such form as the Secretary of Finance, upon the recommendation of the Commissioner, may, by rules and regulation, prescribe.
(B) Annual Information Returns. - Every employer required to deduct and withhold the taxes in respect of the wages of his employees shall, on or before January thirty-first (31st) of the succeeding year, submit to the Commissioner an annual information return containing a list of employees, the total amount of compensation income of each employee, the total amount of taxes withheld therefrom during the year, accompanied by copies of the statement referred to in the preceding paragraph, and such other information as may be deemed necessary. This return, if made and filed in accordance with rules and regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the Commissioner, shall be sufficient compliance with the requirements of Section 68 of this Title in respect of such wages.
(C) Extension of time. - The Commissioner, under such rules and regulations as may be promulgated by the Secretary of Finance, may grant to any employer a reasonable extension of time to furnish and submit the statements and returns required under this Section.